Calcium and Phosphorus in the Guinea Pig Diet

Calcium is a very important part of the diet of both guinea pigs and any animals in general (including humans), however, too high a calcium content is not good for gilts. It is extremely dangerous for their health to completely exclude foods that do not contain calcium from their diet. In this case, the phosphorus content in the diet will be too high, and the ratio of calcium to phosphorus becomes inverse and means the appearance of other health problems, such as demineralization (softening) of bones, mainly of the jaw, leading to dental diseases. Calcium is just one of the causes of bladder stones. Drinking little water is another common cause. Drinking a small amount of water leads to a concentration of urine, which causes calcium to precipitate and crystallize.The first step to preventing this is to allow your pig to drink as much water as he wants. Many gilts are given the choice between plain water and vitamin C-supplemented water, and they tend to prefer plain water. A guinea pig needs 100 ml of water per kilogram of body weight. A little less if the guinea pig is eating lots of greens and vegetables. Nevertheless, even if a vegetable is 95% water, then in order to get the necessary, say, 100 ml of water, the pig needs to eat about 100 g of greens per day, and this is a lot, I can tell you. However, before you can speculate about the cause, the stones must be analyzed to reveal their composition and the nucleus of crystallization. The matrix of the “body” of the stone in 99.9% of cases consists of calcium carbonate. I honestly have never heard of other ingredients. This is due to the factthat the environment in which the stone floats while in the bladder is calcium carbonate. Here’s the source. Calcium oxalate, phosphate, or more often carbonate can all be the nucleus of crystallization. There is a lot of data from studies of calcium oxalate stones in guinea pigs (and humans) that show that the absence of certain anaerobic bacteria predisposes animals and humans to calcium oxalate stones. The absence of these oxalate-degrading bacteria in the cecum may explain the increased sensitivity of some guinea pigs to vegetables with high calcium content – while in rabbits such vegetables do not cause problems. But I digress from the topic. It is important to remember that the correct ratio of calcium to phosphorus is much more important than just the calcium content in the diet. The rule I use myself isstates that in the vegetative parts of plants, the ratio of calcium to phosphorus is higher. This is an ideal ratio, since the inverse ratio, where there is more phosphorus than calcium, we do not need (as it can lead to the formation of phosphate stones and bone demineralization). Phosphate crystals are embedded in the bladder wall and cause irritation. In the reproductive parts of plants (seeds and roots), the phosphorus content is much higher. This applies to all fruits (apples, bananas, grapes, raisins), seeds (cereal mixes, sunflower seeds, oatmeal) and carrots. Another reason not to feed the above food. The following tables show the calcium and phosphorus content of the diet and also include the calcium to phosphorus ratio. If you are looking for a diet for your guinea pig with bladder stones,these tables will be of great help to you. You need to choose a combination of vegetables (and several fruits) that is low in calcium and such that the total calcium to phosphorus ratio is between 1.5: 1 and 2: 1. 

Calcium and Phosphorus in the Guinea Pig Diet

| VEGETABLES, portion 100 g | Water (%) | Energy (Kcal) | Protein (g) | Vitamin C (mg) | Calcium Ca (mg) | Phosphorus P (mg) | Ca: P ratio | : ————————- | ———— | ——- | – —— | ——— | ——— | ———: | Alfalfa (alfalfa), sprouts (shoots) | 91.14 | 29 | 4.0 | 8.2 | 32 | 70 | 0.5: 1 | | Asparagus | 92.40 | 23 | 2.28 | 13.2 | 21 | 56 | 0.4: 1 | Okra (okra, gombo) | 89.58 | 33 | 2.00 | 21.1 | 81 | 63 | 1.3: 1 | | Broccoli | 90.69 | 28 | 3 | 93.2 | 48 | 66 | 0.7: 1 | | Rutabaga | 89.66 | 36 | 1.20 | 25.0 | 47 | 58 | 0.8: 1 | | Mustard, leaves | 90.80 | 26 | 2.70 | 70.0 | 103 | 43 | 2.4: 1 | | Cabbage | 92.15 | 25 | 1.44 | 32.2 | 47 | 23 | 2: 1 | | Brussels sprouts | 86.00 | 43 | 3.38 | 85.0 | 42 | 69 | 0.6: 1 | | Chinese cabbage | 95.32 | 13 | 1.50 | 45.0 | 105 | 37 | 2.8: 1 | | Cabbage (fodder) | 84.46 | 50 | 3.30 | 120.0 | 135 | 56 | 2.4: 1 | | Cauliflower | 91.91 | 25 | 2 | 46.4 | 22 | 44 | 0.5: 1 | | Kohlrabi | 91.00 | 27 | 1.70 | 62.0 | 24 | 46 | 0.5: 1 | | Watercress | 95.11 | 11 | 2.30 | 43.0 | 120 | 60 | 2: 1 | | Coriander | 92.21 | 23 | 2.13 | 27.0 | 67 | 48 | 1.4: 1 | | Corn | 75.96 | 86 | 3.22 | 6.8 | 2 | 89 | 0.02: 1 | | Mangold | 92.66 | 19 | 1.80 | 30.0 | 51 | 46 | 1.1: 1 | | Carrots | 87.79 | 43 | 1.03 | 9.3 | 27 | 44 | 0.6: 1 | | Cucumber (with skin) | 96.01 | 13 | 0.69 | 5.3 | 14 | 20 | 0.7: 1 | | Dandelion, greens | 85.60 | 45 | 2.70 | 35.0 | 187 | 66 | 2.8: 1 | | Pepper, green | 92.19 | 27 | 0.89 | 89.3 | 9 | 19 | 0.5: 1 | | Pepper, red | 92.19 | 27 | 0.89 | 190.0 | 9 | 19 | 0.5: 1 | | Parsley | 87.71 | 36 | 2.97 | 133.0 | 138 | 2.4: 1 | | Tomatoes | 93.76 | 21 | 0.85 | 19.1 | 5 | 24 | 0.2: 1 | | Sweet tomatoes, leaves | 87.96 | 35 | 4.00 | 11.0 | 37 | 94 | 0.4: 1 | | Purslane | 93.92 | 16 | 1.30 | 21.0 | 65 | 44 | 1.5: 1 | | Lettuce (green leaves of regular lettuce) | 94.91 | 14 | 1.62 | 24.0 | 36 | 45 | 0.8: 1 | | Head lettuce | 94.00 | 18 | 1.30 | 18.0 | 68 | 25 | 2.7: 1 | | Beets, greens | 92.15 | 19 | 1.82 | 30.0 | 119 | 40 | 3: 1 | | Beets | 87.58 | 43 | 1.61 | 4.9 | 16 | 40 | 0.4: 1 | | Celery | 94.64 | 16 | 0.75 | 7.0 | 40 | 25 | 1.6: 1 | | Turnips (turnips) | 91.87 | 27 | 0.90 | 21.0 | 30 | 27 | 1.1: 1 | | Turnips (turnips), greens | 91.07 | 27 | 1.50 | 60.0 | 190 | 42 | 4.5: 1 | | Pumpkin | 91.60 | 26 | 1.00 | 9.0 | 21 | 44 | 0.5: 1 | | Pumpkin (all varieties – squash, pumpkin, squash, etc.) | 88.72 | 37 | 1.45 | 12.3 | 31 | 32 | 1: 1 | | Dill, herbs | 85.95 | 43 | 3.46 | 85.0 | 208 | 66 | 3.2: 1 | | Green beans | 90.27 | 31 | 1.82 | 16.3 | 37 | 38 | 1: 1 | | Chicory, herbs | 92.00 | 23 | 1.70 | 24.0 | 100 | 47 | 2.1: 1 | | Spinach | 91.58 | 22 | 2.86 | 28.1 | 99 | 49 | 2: 1 |

FRUIT, 100 g Water, (%) Energy, (Kcal) Protein, (g) Vitamin C, (mg) Calcium Ca, (mg) Phosphorus P, (mg) Ca: P ratio
Apricots 86.35 48 1.40 10.0 fourteen 19 0.7: 1
A pineapple 86.50 49 0.39 15.4 7 7 1: 1
Oranges 86.75 47 0.94 53.2 40 fourteen 2.9: 1
Watermelon 91.51 32 0.62 9.6 eight nine 0.9: 1
Bananas 74.26 92 1.03 9.1 6 twenty 0.3: 1
Grape 80.56 71 0.66 10.8 eleven 13 0.8: 1
Cherry 80.76 72 1.20 7.0 15 19 0.8: 1
Grapefruit, white 90.48 33 0.69 33.3 12 eight 1.5: 1
Grapefruit, pink and red 91.38 thirty 0.55 38.1 eleven nine 1.2: 1
Pear 83.81 59 0.39 4.0 eleven eleven 1: 1
Honey melon 89.66 35 0.46 24.8 6 ten 0.6: 1
Strawberry 91.57 thirty 0.61 56.7 fourteen 19 0.7: 1
Raisins, pitted 15.42 300 3.22 3.3 49 97 0.5: 1
Kiwi 83.05 61 0.99 98.0 26 40 0.65: 1
Cranberry 86.54 49 0.39 13.5 7 nine 0.8: 1
Lime 88.26 thirty 0.70 29.1 33 eighteen 1.8: 1
Lemon (no zest) 88.98 29 1.10 53.0 26 16 1.6: 1
Raspberries 86.57 49 0.91 25.0 22 12 1.8: 1
Mango 81.71 65 0.51 27.7 ten eleven 0.9: 1
Mandarin 87.60 44 0.63 30.8 fourteen 12 1.2: 1
Nectarine 86.28 49 0.94 5.4 5 16 0.3: 1
Papaya 88.83 39 0.61 61.8 24 5 4.8: 1
Peaches 87.66 43 0.70 6.6 5 12 0.4: 1
Plums 85.20 55 0.79 9.5 4 100 4: 1
Black currant 85.64 52 0.72 21.0 32 21 1.5: 1
Blueberry 84.61 56 0.67 13.0 6 ten 0.6: 1
Persimmon 80.32 70 0.58 7.5 eight 17 0.5: 1
Apples (with skin) 83.93 59 0.19 5.7 7 7 1: 1

| CALCIUM content per 100 g

VEGETABLES | : ———– 208 mg – Dill, greens 190 mg – Turnips (turnips), greens 187 mg – Parsley 135 mg – Cabbage (fodder) 120 mg – Watercress 119 mg – Beetroot, greens 105 mg – Chinese cabbage 103 mg – Mustard, greens 100 mg – Chicory, greens 

 

99 mg – Spinach 

81 mg – Okra (okra, gombo) 

68 mg – head lettuce 

67 mg – Coriander 

65 mg – Purslane 

52 mg – Chicory Endive (Escariol) 

51 mg – Mangold Swiss 

48 mg – Broccoli 

47 mg – Cabbage 

47 mg – Rutabaga 

42 mg – Brussels sprouts 

40 mg – Celery 

37 mg – Sweet Tomatoes, Leaves 

37 mg – Green beans 

36 mg – Lettuce (green leaves of regular lettuce) 

32 mg – Alfalfa (alfalfa) sprouts (shoots) 

31 mg – Pumpkin (winter, all varieties, e.g. squash, pumpkin, squash, etc.) 

30 mg – Turnips (turnips) 

27 mg – Carrots 

24 mg – Kohlrabi 

23 mg – Carrots, young

22 mg – Sweet Tomatoes 

22 mg – Cauliflower 

21 mg – Asparagus 

21 mg – Pumpkin 

20 mg – Pumpkin (summer, all varieties, e.g. squash, pumpkin, squash, etc.) 

16 mg – Beet 

14 mg – Cucumber (with skin) 

9 mg – Pepper, red 

9 mg – Pepper, green 

5 mg – Tomatoes 

2 mg – Maize 49 mg – Raisins, pitted 

40 mg – Oranges 

33 mg – Lime 

32 mg – Black currant 

26 mg – Kiwi 

26 mg – Lemon (without zest) 

24 mg – Papaya 

22 mg – Raspberry 

15 mg – Cherry, sweet 

14 mg – Strawberries 

14 mg – Mandarin 

14 mg – Apricots 

12 mg – Grapefruit, white 

11 mg – Grapefruit, pink and red 

11 mg – Pears 

11 mg – Cantaloupe (cantaloupe) 

11 mg – Grapes 

10 mg – Mango 

8 mg – Watermelon 

8 mg – Persimmon 

7 mg – Pineapple 

7 mg – Apples (with skin) 

7 mg – Cranberry 

6 mg – Bananas 

6 mg – Honey melon 

6 mg – Blueberry 

5 mg – Kassaba (winter melon) 

5 mg – Nectarine 

5 mg – Peach 

4 mg – Plums

Calcium to phosphorus ratio Ca: P

VEGETABLES Calcium to phosphorus ratio Ca: P

FRUITS

4.5: 1 – Turnips (turnips), greens 

3.2: 1 – Dill, greens 

3.0: 1 – Beets, greens 

2.8: 1 – Dandelion, greens 

2.8: 1 – Chinese cabbage 

2.7: 1 – Head lettuce 

2.4: 1 – Mustard, greens 

2.4: 1 – Parsley

2.4: 1 – Cabbage (fodder) 

2.1: 1 – Chicory, herbs 

2.0: 1 – Spinach 

2.0: 1 – Watercress 

2.0: 1 – Cabbage 

1.9: 1 – Chicory endive (escariole)

1.6: 1 – Celery 

1.5: 1 – Purslane 

1.4: 1 – Coriander 

1.3: 1 – Okra (okra, gombo) 

1.1: 1 – Mangold, Swiss 

1.1: 1 – Turnips (turnips) 

1.0: 1 – Pumpkin (winter, all varieties, e.g. squash, pumpkin, squash, etc.) 

1.0: 1 – Beans, green 

0.8: 1 – Lettuce (green leaves of regular lettuce) 

0.8: 1 – Sweet potato 

0.8: 1 – Rutabaga 

0.7: 1 – Broccoli 

0.7: 1 – Cucumber (with skin) 

0.6: 1 – Carrots 

0.6: 1 – Pumpkin (summer, all varieties, e.g. squash, pumpkin, squash, etc.)

0.6: 1 – Carrots, young 

0.6: 1 – Brussels sprouts 

0.5: 1 – Cauliflower 

0.5: 1 – Kohlrabi 

0.5: 1 – Pumpkin 

0.5: 1 – Alfalfa (alfalfa), sprouts (shoots) 

0.5: 1 – Parsnip 

0.5: 1 – Pepper, green 

0.5: 1 – Pepper, red 

0.4: 1 – Sweet tomatoes, leaves 

0.4: 1 – Beet 

0.4: 1 – Asparagus 

0.2: 1 – Tomatoes 

.02: 1 – Maize 4.8: 1 – Papaya 

2.9: 1 – Oranges 

1.8: 1 – Lime 

1.8: 1 – Raspberry 

1.6: 1 – Lemon (no zest) 

1.5: 1 – Black currant 

1.5: 1 – Grapefruit, white 

1.2: 1 – Grapefruit, pink and red 

1.2: 1 – Mandarin 

1.0: 1 – Pineapple 

1.0: 1 – Pears 

1.0: 1 – Apples (with skin) 

0.9: 1 – Mango 

0.9: 1 – Watermelon 

0.8: 1 – Cherries, sweet 

0.8: 1 – Grapes 

0.8: 1 – Cranberry 

0.7: 1 – Kassaba (winter melon) 

0.7: 1 – Apricots 

0.7: 1 – Kiwi 

0.7: 1 – Strawberries 

0.6: 1 – Cantaloupe (cantaloupe)

0.6: 1 – Honey melon 

0.6: 1 – Blueberry 

0.5: 1 – Persimmon 

0.5: 1 – Raisins, pitted 

0.4: 1 – Peaches 

0.4: 1 – Plums 

0.3: 1 – Nectarine 

0.3: 1 – Bananas

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