Of all the diseases of the urinary organs of guinea pigs, cystitis is perhaps the most common. Its clinical manifestations are restlessness and frequent attempts to excrete urine, which are unsuccessful. The urine may be bloody. Sulfonamide (100 mg / kg body weight, subcutaneous) is sometimes combined with 0.2 ml of Baskopan as an antispasmodic agent that should work within 24 hours. Treatment, however, must be continued for 5 days, otherwise relapse may occur. In parallel with the sulfonamide treatment, a resistance test should be performed so that – in the event that sulfonamide treatment does not help – a therapeutically effective drug is known. If antibiotic treatment within 24 hours does not have the desired effect, an X-ray is urgently needed,as guinea pigs can have urine sand and stones.
Stones can be detected by x-ray, in some cases it is also necessary to examine urinary sediment under a microscope. For this, urine is collected in a hematocrit microtubule and squeezed out by centrifugation. The contents of the hematocrit microtubule can be seen under a microscope.
Bladder stones must be surgically removed. To do this, the guinea pig must be euthanized and tied in a supine position. The abdomen should be shaved from the chest and disinfected with 40 percent isopropyl alcohol. The opening of the abdomen should be done in the midline of the abdomen after the skin has been cut; in size, it should be such that the bladder can be in the presentation position. The stone or stones must first be felt in order to determine the required amount of bladder expansion. The stone is pressed with the thumb and forefinger against the wall of the bladder in the Fundus area and serves as a lining for the scalpel. The size of the bladder opening should be such that the stones can be easily reached. At the end, the bladder should be thoroughly rinsed with Ringer’s solution, warmed to body temperature,so as not to cause strong cooling of the animal. Then the bladder is sutured with a double ‘suture. The closure of the abdominal cavity is done in the usual way. The animal is injected with sulfonamide (100 mg / i 1 kg of body weight, subcutaneously) and kept under a red lamp or on a warm bed until full awakening.